Informed Consent—We Can and Should Do Better

Abstract: Informed consent is fundamental to the ethical and legal doctrines respecting research participants’ voluntary participation in clinical research, enshrined in such documents as the 1947 Nuremberg Code; reaffirmed in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki, revised in 1975, and the 1978 Belmont Report; and codified in the United States in the 1981 Common Rule, revised in 2018 and implemented in 2019.