Informed Consent—We Can and Should Do Better

Informed consent is fundamental to the ethical and legal doctrines respecting research participants’ voluntary participation in clinical research, enshrined in such documents as the 1947 Nuremberg Code; reaffirmed in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki, revised in 1975, and the 1978 Belmont Report; and codified in the United States in the 1981 Common Rule, revised in 2018 and implemented in 2019. More